It also plays an extremely important role as a local guardian in disaster recovery, disaster prevention/reduction, deterioration countermeasures, maintenance, etc. Commercial buses transported 4.65 billion passengers (up 0.1 percent from the previous fiscal year) and 64.11 billion passenger-kilometers (up 0.9 percent); both figures of passengers and passenger-kilometers increased in fiscal 2018. According to the status of Internet use by device by age group as of the end of September 2019, the usage rate of smartphones was the highest (63.3 percent), followed by computers (50.4 percent). Japan's reserve assets remained at around 220 billion U.S. dollars during the period from 1996 to 1998. Description: The map displayed here shows how Death rate varies by country. In the past, human beings have faced the threat of various epidemic diseases, including new strains of influenza. In 2019, this population reached 110.92 million people. The total R&D expenditures in fiscal 2018 amounted to 19.5 trillion yen, an increase of 2.5 percent from the previous fiscal year. Observed by size of operation in terms of persons engaged, establishments with less than 20 persons accounted for 88.6 percent of the total. Even with the addition of other taxes and stamp revenues, these revenue sources only amount to 61.9 percent of the total revenue. Regional banks and credit depositories operating in their respective regions have been making efforts to expand their operations bases through corporate mergers. In February 1973, Japan adopted a floating exchange-rate system. Bulgaria is the top country by death rate in the world. To pass on this cultural heritage to future generations, the Japanese government has accorded many of the most important assets as national treasures, designated important cultural properties, historic sites, places of scenic beauty, or natural monuments, based on the Act on Protection of Cultural Properties. However, the shape of the M-shaped curve has been changing in recent years. Using revenues from general sources such as taxes, the general account covers core national expenditures such as social security, public works, education and science, and national defense. With regard to the total number of unemployed persons in 2019, by reason for job-seeking, the major reasons were: (i) involuntary separation due to corporate or business circumstances, or reaching retirement age limit, 0.37 million persons; (ii) voluntary separation for personal or family reasons, 0.7 million persons; (iii) new job seekers due to the necessity to earn income, 0.19 million; and (iv) new job seekers just graduated from school, 0.05 million. On the other hand, the tertiary industry's share of them have risen consistently. The most popular reason among females was also "For working at convenient times", with 4.38 million females (31.2 percent) choosing this reason, up 0.11 million people. Japan's 2019 trade balance with Asia resulted in a 3.9 trillion yen in surplus, a decrease for the second consecutive year (down 29.1 percent from the previous year). The pandemic appears to have reversed that trend, and the rise in suicides has disproportionately affected women. These decreases (in both production and shipments) were due to a decrease in "semiconductor and flat-panel display manufacturing equipment", "metal forming machinery", etc. Among the number of broadband subscribers, those with subscriptions for 3.9-4G mobile phones (LTE) were the highest, amounting to 137 million subscriptions and accounting for 56.2 percent of the total. With regard to the main reasons for the current employment patterns of males and females who are non-regular staff members, for males, the reason "For working at convenient times" was the most popular, on average in 2019, with 1.87 million males (29.3 percent) choosing this reason, up 0.16 million people as compared to the previous year. 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Most of the calls come through the night -- from 10 p.m. to 4 a.m. (D) Electronic Parts and Devices Industry. The House of Councillors has 248 members, of whom 100 are elected through proportional representation, and 148 are elected as representatives from 45 electoral districts of the nation, based upon prefectures. Japan's life expectancy remains at a high level in the world. Consequently, the number of municipalities was reduced by nearly half from the 3,232 existing at the end of March 1999. With regard to the trends in the number of employed persons by employment pattern, non-regular staff members, such as part-time workers and agency-dispatched workers, have been increasing continuously for the 10th consecutive year since 2010. Occupied dwellings by building type showed that 29 million or 53.6 percent were detached houses, and 23 million or 43.6 percent were apartments. Of these commercial farm households, 33.3 percent were full-time farm households, 12.4 percent were part-time farm households with farming income exceeding non-farming income, and 54.3 percent were part-time farm households with non-farming income exceeding farming income. In fiscal 2017, social security benefit expenditures totaled 120.2 trillion yen (up 1.6 percent from the previous fiscal year), a figure which amounted to 949,000 yen per person. As pandemic restrictions take children out of school and social situations, they're dealing with abuse, stressful home lives, and pressures from falling behind on homework, Ozora said. "I constantly feel a sense of crisis that I might fall back into poverty.". The islands form a crescent-shaped archipelago stretching from northeast to southwest parallel to the continental coastline with the Sea of Japan in between. While the Japanese media rarely details the specifics of such deaths -- deliberately not dwelling on method or motive -- the mere reporting on these cases often causes an increase in suicide in the general public, according to experts such as Ueda. At the end of 1980, Japan's net worth (national wealth) stood at 1,363 trillion yen, 5.6 times the GDP. Japan's 2019 trade balance with the U.S.A. showed a surplus of 6.6 trillion yen (up 2.5 percent from the previous year), an increase for the first time in 2 years. This led to the Basic Act on Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society (brought into force in January 2001), which defines basic principles for the creation of a sound material-cycle society. As of the end of March 2019, the total number of IP phone subscribers was 43 million. The ratio of non-regular staff members among all male employees was 22.8 percent, while the corresponding ratio for females was 56.0 percent, revealing a large difference between the genders. 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