The rubber compartments were unsuitable on account of their weight and their electrical properties. Generally speaking, the junior officers were not competent to undertake all the work expected of the observation balloons, and even specially qualified officers required about a year's training, although a large number of junior officers became excellent artillery observers. Furthermore, the old type could never have carried 1000 or 2500 lbs. It was important that the same observer should always undertake this work, for it was only by specialising that the best possible results could be obtained. Had the English succeeded in making a successful sortie from Kut, the position of the 6th Turkish Army would have been excessively dangerous. Twenty minutes have passed, and already quietness reigns again completely- The hum of the The observer sits ahead in the nacelle, watching his compass and his map, and pointing out the course to be followed with his hand. For most of the war 'D' was only used for biplane fighters, 'E' for monoplane fighters and 'Dr' for triplane fighters. One thousand feet, 800 feet, 500 feet—then—the heart beats until it seems that it must burst and every pulse in the body throbs. Leading up to the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, The US Air Service under Maj. Gen. Patrick oversaw the organization of 28 air squadrons for the battle, with the French, British, and Italians contributing additional units to bring the total force numbers to 701 pursuit planes, 366 observation planes, 323 day bombers, and 91 night bombers. neighbourhood of Wychaerte, between Bapaume and Arras, near Roye, on the Aisne Front and in the valley of the Nesle. One had to bo resigned to a short life and no seaworthiness. Now let us return and consider the possible uses to which aircraft may be put in the immediate future, and the various problems of business, science, and research towards which the aeroplane or the airship can contribute either wholly or partially some solution. The distinctive feature of the non-rigid type is the envelope, whose form is not supported by any internal framework but is preserved entirely by the pressure of the gas inside acting directly against the rubber skin. in case of necessity, at Tupigny. Furthermore, in April 1917, a machine succeeded in descending by night to within a few feet of the ground over a French aerodrome, and in dropping a 130-Ib. This factory occupies a site approximately 1100 (4) General Objectives for all squadrons: the The ship at once hauled:"down her top-gaff-sail, and displayed the American flag. Two thousand five hundred feet was selected as the magic height, and the aeroplane was then supposed to be protected from hostile fire of every description by some mysterious agency. The idea was that the torpedo should obtain its initial velocity from the actual speed of the machine, and should be discharged at short range against any hostile ship. Our airship crews used to derive much pleasure from the sight of the ships wildly zigzagging across the sea, and scattering in order to avoid their bombs. Consequently our reconnaissance machines were ensured command of the air over the battle-fields, and were therefore able to carry out their work unhindered. This turned the scale in our favour, for we reached the neighbouring aerodrome at Hage with the last drop of petrol in our tanks. Whereas formerly only senior officers from the staff or the artillery were accustomed to go up in the balloons, it now became a common practice for officers of other branches to test the capacity of the parachute and perhaps to experience the sensation of jumping from a burning balloon. In the night of the I5th-16th we experienced bomb raids, and on the 17th, shortly before dawn, the alarm signal rang out again. As a result of this frame of mind, numerous orders were issued by the Army Corps? The German military forces shall be demobilised and reduced as prescribed hereinafter. [26] About 391 German pilots are credited with shooting down at least five Allied aircraft.[27]. Bronze torpedoes were also constructed for reasons of weight economy, and were carried by single-seater land machines. 1 lighting Squadron must be attributed principally to the initiative of its commander, Frhr. As a rule the enemy would attack from the west or north just out of sight of the coast, and so came within the sectors of Borkum and List, which were frequented also by cargo shipping and the trawlers, which could, therefore, save the machine and its occupants should they be compelled to land. The question of replenishing supplies was vital. The fighting troops, exhausted by the pressure of battle, were mistrustful of the scheme, and only displayed the given signals with reluctance. There are atill four hours before dawn. be carried. north and south, enabled the enemy to enfilade our positions which ran approximately east and west from the sea. In addition to these manifold arts and sciences, a new technique had to be acquired in the matter of armament design, to meet the demands of the aeroplane. It was not until the National Aero Association had been formed, together with the increasing competition that existed between flying men with regard to possible flight duration, that night flying was again inevitably taken up in 1914, although even then only by a few individuals. Especial use was made of rocket batteries, which, at given intervals, discharged signal lights that, under good conditions, were visible for 50 or 60 miles. There was very little difference between the engines used on airships and those that were fitted to aeroplanes, Diedenhofen. The enemy's searchlights, although used with a diametrically opposite purpose, assisted more than anything else to locate the objective that was to be attacked. We will now consider more closely the training of each individual branch of the Air Force. Direction of approach will be to the north; ), NAVAL AIRSHIPS—RECONNAISSANCE OVER THE NORTH SEA — ESCORTING AND ASSISTING THE MINESWEEPERS. The enemy has managed to overtake us, and is attacking us from below. The sea-coast, fires, rivers, canals, lakes, bridges, large woods, railway lines, and dry roads provided an easy method of finding one's way by night. At Easter 191G he pushed forward as far as Katia; overwhelmed the English camp, and took about 20 officers and 1200 men prisoners. Trouble was caused by the safety valves themselves becoming coated with ice when they were opened in the cold, moist atmosphere of high altitudes over the sea, consequently it became impossible to close them again sufficiently to prevent leakage of gas. Welcome to my eBay Shop! Soon, however, this evidence lost its value, since the enormous number of huts which had been built for the earlier operations made it unnecessary for the enemy to construct any more for his later offensives. Honey for further enterprise and research had to be found as soon as sea-t planes showed signs of promise. The development of non-rigid airships received a Again a withering blast of fire is directed against us. with dummy aerodromes, but it was found that they cost too much time and work to cany out on the necessary scale. Later on he was sent up in bad weather. The fighting machines at the beginning of the offensive were attached to various groups, and their operations came under the control of the Army Corps Commanders, Soon, however, it became obvious that this method affected the unity of the Air Force as a whole and led to a splitting up of the forces at our disposal. Fig. quick perception of tactical and strategical conditions ; a knowledge of the principles of both open and trench warfare; familiarity with the science of gunnery and the problems affecting guns of every calibre; the ability to take aerial photographs and to interpret them; a working knowledge of petrol engines, meteorology, field telegraphy and wireless telegraphy, the field telephonic system, signalling lamps and the use of carrier pigeons. For this reason the valves on the top deck were made accessible, so that if necessary they could be closed by hand. Tactical reconnaissance was perhaps the most dangerous work that the airman was required to perform owing to the incessant menace from hostile fighting machines and anti-aircraft guns, which sought, at any cost and by any means, to prevent the photographic machines from discovering any details of tactical importance. The machine starts, flies over the message-receiving station, and calls it up several times as follows: Eventually all uniforms and the whole equipment were thua painted with protective colouring. connaissance remained of fundamental importance, in fact gained in importance on account of these new conditions, because a reliable survey of the disposition of the enemy's troops was even more to be desired since our defensive operations had to be carried out with such inadequate forces. After the war ended in German defeat, the service was dissolved completely on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which demanded that its aeroplanes be completely destroyed. Meanwhile the English were systematically proceeding with their railway construction. our German Air Force prepared the way for the conquest of the space, and it is the same power, indestructible like energy itself, which shall carry on the They did not actually fly, but assisted the flying personnel in the maintenance of the ship. Over and over again the same thing happened. ), THE PILOT AND OBSERVER AS ONE INDIVIDUAL. Our plans for the offensive involved the Air Force being given work of decisive importance as soon as the advance commenced. In spite of that fact, during the offensive of 1918, the enemy attempted to screen the line from Doullens to St. Pol. It was equipped with a complete wireless installation, improved armament, bombs to be used against submarines, and a movable machine gun for defensive purposes. £22.50. Much good work was accomplished by co-operation between the Air Force and these special batteries. As yet there had been no new hostile batteries to report, but the enemy's infantry called incessantly for assistance by discharging rockets. For aerial combats there is no protection in The first German machine appeared on the Dardanelles in April 1915, The conditions under which our men had to fight were as bad as possible. sent over photographic and reconnaissance machines at very great altitudes to enable them to break through our defensive patrols and reconnoitre the battle zone. In 1915, therefore, Siemens-Schuckert produced a machine in which the two engines at the side were supplemented by a third placed in the centre of the fuselage. Even this method, however, did not run quite smoothly at first, and Even though the number of nights on which it was possible to carry out successful operations was limited, it was soon found that night flying was applicable to other work besides mere bomb dropping. and was oven the cause of the raids being partly It is pitch dark inside the gondola, with the exception of the very faint spots of light from the pointers of the instruments. The Hannoveraner and the Halberstadt were among those specially designed to answer this purpose. BEFORE the war, seaplanes were like step-children to the Navy, for practically nothing was expected of them; it was on airships that the Navy relied for reconnaissance and observation patrols. Suddenly a shot rang out! In the old days mounted troops had to force a way through the enemy's screen of scouts in order that the reconnoitring patrols might carry out their work, and, similarly, now fighting machines, assisted by anti-aircraft guns, had to overcome the enemy's aerial defences in order to open up a way for our own observation machines. German Air Force Fokker DR 1 Fighter Scout World War 1, 7x3 inch Reprint Photo a. 5. Ten or twenty high-explosive grenades were also carried, usually suspended from a wire cage which was provided with a simple form of bomb sight. bombs and two 110-lb. Those who know the English are aware that, in spite of events like this, they would always fight in the air with the greatest determination and keenness. A very large number of propellers were used owing to the enormous heat, which made them split. On no occasion should they have been required to undertake work of a tactical nature. Nothing therefore ever came of the torpedo-carrying land machine. The German Air Force on the Western Front—Verdun, 1916 —The Battle of the Somme, 1916—On the defensive, 1917 —The Great Offensive, 1918. Every resource of science and skilled design was incorporated in the construction of torpedo-carrying machines, principally with a view to employing them in Flanders and the Dardanelles. However, this accompanying machine used to limit the work that could be carried out by the fighters, since the latter, owing to their greater speed, were obliged to throttle down considerably to keep in touch with it. shown on the accompanying sketch. Not a single English machine was seen. objective by employing a formation of several two-seater machines. Trench warfare itself brought into existence a specialised type of machine, the 'contact machines’, which frequently flew at a height of only 30 or 40 feet. The observer required both experience and good luck in order to send through his message quickly and accurately. Far below appears a sudden tremendous explosion, quickly followed by a vast cloud of smoke which rises from the ground to a height of many thousands of feet. The rapid development of aeronautics led to trials of airships and the choice of rigid types built by Zeppelin and Schutte-Lanz. But its traditions, its impressive dimensions, and its ability to keep in the air all day long with thirty or forty passengers must not make one forget that its lifting power only increases in proportion to its size, and that there is in practice a limit to the latter. Finally another Fokker monoplane was designed with the internally braced wing construction which had proved so excellent on the Junker-Fokker. It frequently happened that on account of cross winds the ships were unable to leave their sheds on those very occasions when they were required to take part in some important naval " operations. The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte —known before October 1916 as Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Flying Corps) abbreviated to Die Fliegertruppe—was the air arm of the Imperial German Army. It was a moment which demanded a cool head. From left to right they weigh respectively 110lb, 220 lb. Having communicated by signals with the ship, we were towed in our aeroplane back to S.M.S. At the beginning of the war there were 15 reserve training centres: when the Armistice was signed there were 64. (d) Bombing. This helps us to a definition of the expression ‘aerial traffic’ generally. Even darkness and the forces of nature, which at first automatically afforded the airman brief respites, quickly enough lost their power in' this respect- In spite of all we stood up to our man. 3,49 P.M. The designers therefore had to draft new plans, which were carried out in practice as soon as possible. (Neumann.). Our fighting machines were concentrated under the command of von Richthofen. Those who were left flew with double determination. Already the machine guns are chattering; the result is wild confusion, collisions, and a complete rout. Even the ladders to the gondolas were made so as to fold up and thereby present less surface to the wind. (4) A chief engineer, The importance of airships would have been increased a hundred-or a thousand-fold, not only in the esteem of the savage races of Africa and the imaginative people of the East, but also in that of our cool-headed enemies, particularly the Americans, a result most valuable to us. out for so long, but with the exception of a few bad periods, the health sheet could be marked ‘good,’ thanks to the precautions of the doctors. The repairs which had to be effected during this long voyage were very numerous, but, with the aid of the spare parts that were carried on board, and, to a certain extent, by making use of material taken from captured steamers, the machine was always kept in a serviceable condition, and ready to take the air whenever it was required. In addition to these common qualities and general stock of information, every airman had to be trained in the special knowledge affecting his particular branch of the service, according to whether he were a balloon officer, airship officer, aeroplane pilot or seaplane pilot. In the event of a machine flying into one of these cables, disaster and death were the inevitable results. ), MILITARY AIRSHIPS. The machine was so seaworthy and reliable that it could rise and descend when a wind-strength of 5 was registered over the North Sea-It was principally in the matter of seaworthiness that the development of the reconnaissance machine had to overcome such tremendous difficulties. The nearer troops are to the enemy, and the more heavily they are being pressed, the more they are inclined to depend upon assistance and reinforcements from behind. The newly-created units made it possible to carry out new work along with the old, From that time onwards until the end of the war the results of long-distance reconnaissance became one of the most important factors in the plans prepared by G.H.Q, Owing to the photographic work of No, 6 squadron, a very important position and railway junction was located on the St. Omer-Calais line. shrapnel are clearly visible against their dull background; thick black clouds of smoke roll across the earth. However, at the beginning of September 1911 a scheme was submitted by the General Staff through the medium of Colonel Ludendorff, as he was in those days, requiring that ten service and six home defence flying units should be established. The machines used to fly hour after hour, in autumn and in winter, often in danger from mist and storms, without ever catching a glimpse of the enemy. From this selection of essentials I hope that the During this undertaking El-Arish, which lay about 90 miles from the Canal, was used as an intermediary landing ground, and later on the whole squadron was stationed at that place, while General von Kress also made it his headquarters. During the war we had to do without meteorological reports of the air above England, particularly over the west of England, and consequently it was impossible to form an accurate judgment of the weather conditions, seeing that they depend mostly upon barometrical depressions advancing from the west. Luftwaffe (Air Force) Cap Insignia. down. {a) Reconnaissance and observation, (6) attacks on the infantry and other work connected with fighting on the ground. Fig. Yet it is typical of a case like this that the majority of those old ‘lions of the desert’ should ever and again feel within their bones a longing for those sunny lands once more. Owing to this inflammability, an airship is almost certain to be destroyed by any aeroplane that can climb above it. This feat originated in a systematic investigation of the habits of the enemy's night-flying machines at their aerodrome at Malze-ville. Let us now consider the future in the light of what we have gained. In spite of all, the observation balloon service was but little heard of in the Army, which was never instructed in the uses to which balloons would be put. (LATE OF THE GERMAN AIR FORGE) During the night following the first advance, and in the following nights, railheads and railway junctions behind the lines were attacked, while later on reserve camps and ammunition dumps were selected as targets. During May similar items of information were obtained by Squadrons 33, 32, and 59. In co-operation with the artillery they frequently caused great confusion at such points. The ships presented a most enticing target, but one which was exceedingly difficult to hit. We have got to get through that barrier. Furthermore, anchors and driving anchors were supplied, tools and spare parts were carried, while a serviceable set of navigation and signalling instruments was installed. The "E" class of armed monoplane were also introduced in 1915 – the other classes being added later as new aircraft types were introduced. In the meantime there had been a change in the personnel out East. Aerial navigation at night was carried out principally with the assistance of the compass and stars, signal lights, and rockets, and, as far as it was visible, by the earth itself. Ready to go up,' I announced- ' Let her go ! On June the 13th and July the 7th, London itself was chosen as the objective, the latter raid being carried out at noon. An order given to an infantry observation machine, ascertain for certain whether white or coloured troops are in possession of Maisonette, will demonstrate the heights, or rather depths, at which machines had to fly, heedless of fire from the ground, in order to obtain such information. There was even a threat of an attack on Berlin. Since the officer commanding, General von Kress, had no modern means of communication at his disposal other than On the ground he acted as second in command. 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